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Referência Bibliográfica

COLE, P., QUEIROZ, G., WALLENSTEIN, N., GASPAR, J.L., DUNCAN, A.M., GUEST, J.E. (1995) - An historic subplinian/phreatomagmatic eruption: the 1630 A.D. eruption of Furnas volcano, São Miguel, Azores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research., 69, 117-135.


​The 1630 AD eruption on the island of São Miguel in the Azores took place from a vent in the southern part of the 7 x 5 km caldera of Furnas volcano. Precursory seismic activity occurred at least 8 hours before the eruption began and was felt over 30 km away. This seismic activity caused extensive damage destroying almost all buildings within a 10 km radius and probably triggered landslides on the southern coast.


The explosive activity lasted  ̴ 3 days and ashfall occurred as far as 550 km away. Published models yield a volume of 0.65 km3 (DRE) for the explosive products. Throughout the course of the eruption more than six discrete airfall lapilli layers, each of subplinian magnitude, were generated by magmatic explosive activity. Dispersal directions initially to the west and finally northeast of the vent indicate a change in wind direction during the eruption. Isopleth maps suggest column heights of up to 14 km and wind speeds varying between < 5 and 30 m/s when compared to published plume models. On steep southern slopes ( > 20º) at least one lapilli layer (L2) shows pinch and swell thickness variations, and rounded pumice clasts suggesting instant remobilisation as grain flows.


Ash-rich layers with abundant accretionary lapilli and vesicular textures are interbedded with the lapilli layers and represent the deposits formed by phreatomagmatic phases that punctuated the purely magmatic activity. The ash-rich layers show lateral thickness variations, as well as cross-bedding and sand-wave structures suggesting that low-concentration, turbulent flows (surges) deposited material on topographic highs. These pyroclastic surges were probably responsible for the 80 people reported burned to death 4 km southwest of the vent. High-particle-concentration, non-turbulent pyroclastic flows were channelled down steep valleys to the southern coast contemporaneously with the low-concentration surges. The massive flow deposits ( ̴ 2 m thick) pass laterally into thin, stratified, accretionary lapilli-rich ashes ( ̴ 20 cm thick) over 100 m horizontally. Lateral transition between thick massive and thin stratified facies occurs on a flat surface unconfined by topography indicating that the flows had an effective yield strength.


Effusive activity followed the explosive activity building a trachytic lava dome with a volume of   ̴ 20 x 106 m3 (0.02 km3 DRE) within the confines of the tuff/pumice cone formed during the explosive phase. Historic records suggest that dome building occurred over a period of at least two months. Calculated durations for eruptive phases and the fluctuation in eruptive style suggest that the eruption was pulsatory which may have been controlled by variable magma supply to the surface.