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Referência Bibliográfica

COLE, P.D., GUEST, J.E., DUNCAN, A.M., PACHECO, J.M. (2001) – Capelinhos 1957-58, Faial, Azores: deposits formed by an emergent surtseyan eruption. Bulletin of Volcanology, 63, 204-220.


The 1957–1958 eruption of Capelinhos, Faial island, Azores, involved three periods of surtseyan, hydromagmatic activity: two in 1957 and one in 1958. Deposits from this eruption are exposed both in sea cliffs cut into the flanks of the tuff cone and more distally >1 km from the vent. Five lithofacies are identified: lithofacies I is composed of even thickness beds with laterally continuous internal stratigraphy and is interpreted to have been formed by fallout. Lithofacies II consists of beds with internally discontinuous lenses, and has sandwave structures that increase in abundance toward the outer margins of the tuff cone. This lithofacies is interpreted as having been deposited from pyroclastic surges. Lithofacies III is composed of mantle-bedded deposits with laterally discontinuous internal stratigraphy. This lithofacies is interpreted to have been formed by hybrid processes where fallout of tephra occurred simultaneously with pyroclastic surges. In the outer flanks of the tuff cone, lithofacies III grades laterally into fallout beds of lithofacies I. Lithofacies IV consists of alternating beds of coarse ash aggregates and non-aggregated fine ash, and is particularly well developed in distal regions. Some of this facies was formed by fallout. Alternating beds also occur plastered against obstacles up to 2 km from the vent, indicating an origin from wet pyroclastic surges. The orientation of plastered tephra indicates that the surges were deflected by topography as they decelerated. The distinction between surge and fallout in distal regions is uncertain because wind-drifted fallout and de decelerating surge clouds can generate similar deposits. Lithofacies V consists of scoria lapilli beds interpreted to be fallout from hawaiian-style fire-fountaining in the later stages of the eruption. Juvenile pyroclasts within hydromagmatic deposits are predominantly poorly vesicular (25–60% of clasts <30% vesicles). However, on both micro- and macroscopic scales, there is a wide range in clast vesicularity (up to 70% vesicles) indicating that, although fragmentation was predominantly hydromagmatic, vesiculation and magmatic-volatile-driven fragmentation operated simultaneously.