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Referência Bibliográfica

CRUZ, J.V., FREIRE, P., COSTA, A., FONTIELA, J., CABRAL, L., COUTINHO, R. (2015) - Hydrogeochemical characterization of mineral waters in Sao Miguel Island, Azores. In: Gaspar, J.L., Guest, J.E., Duncan, A.M., Barriga, F.J.A.S., Chester, D.K. (eds.) Volcanic Geology of São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago), Geological Society of London Memoir, 44: 257-269, doi: 10.1144/M44.19.​


​A dataset on the chemical composition of mineral water discharges from São Miguel, 76 samples, depicts a large variability of chemical types and dissolved solids content. The distribution of the discharges shows an association with the three active Quaternary central volcanoes that dominate the geology of São Miguel, namely Furnas, Fogo and Sete Cidades, 74% of which are springs, 13% fumaroles, 12% wells and 1% hand-dug wells. Total dissolved solids (TDS) values are in the range of 159–20 957 mg l-1 , discharge temperature varies from 15 to 99.58C and waters are mainly strongly acid to slightly alkaline (pH ranging between 2.2 and 7.71). Springs discharge mainly from perched-water bodies, corresponding to Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl-type waters, with a composition influenced by absorption of CO2 and mixing between meteoric water and boiling waters with a hydrothermal component. Instead the majority of the wells are distributed along the coast and depict chloride enrichment owing to mixture with seawater. The lower pH values are associated with boiling pools at Fogo Volcano with a SO4-dominated chemistry, resulting from steam-heating of shallow perched-water bodies.