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Referência Bibliográfica

UCHÔA, J., VIVEIROS, F., TIENGO, R., GIL, A. (2023) - Detection of Geothermal Anomalies in Hydrothermal Systems Using ASTER Data: The Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande Case Study (Azores, Portugal). Sensors, 23, 2258, doi: 10.3390/s23042258.


​Current-day volcanic activity in the Azores archipelago is characterized by seismic events and secondary manifestations of volcanism. Remote sensing techniques have been widely employed to monitor deformation in volcanic systems, map lava flows, or detect high-temperature gas emissions. However, using satellite imagery, it is still challenging to identify low-magnitude thermal changes in a volcanic system. In 2010, after drilling a well for geothermal exploration on the northern flank of Fogo Volcano on São Miguel Island, a new degassing and thermal area emerged with maximum temperatures of 100 ºC. In the present paper, using the ASTER sensor, we observed changes in the near-infrared signals (15 m spatial resolution) six months after the anomaly emerged. In contrast, the thermal signal (90 m spatial resolution) only changed its threshold value one and a half years after the anomaly was recognized. The results show that wavelength and spatial resolution can influence the response time in detecting changes in a system. This paper reiterates the importance of using thermal imaging and high spatial resolution images to monitor and map thermal anomalies in hydrothermal systems such as those found in the Azores.​​