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Referência Bibliográfica

GUEST, J.E., GASPAR, J.L., COLE, P., QUEIROZ, G., DUNCAN, A.M., WALLENSTEIN, N., FERREIRA T., PACHECO, J.M. (1999) - Volcanic Geology of Furnas Volcano, São Miguel, Açores. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 92, 1-29.


​Furnas is the easternmost of the three active central volcanoes on the island of São Miguel in the Azores. Unlike the other two central volcanoes, Sete Cidades and Fogo, Furnas does not have a well-developed edifice, but consists of a steep-sided caldera complex 8 x 5 km across. It is built on the outer flanks of the Povoação / Nordeste lava complex that forms the eastern end of São Miguel. Constructive flanks to the volcano exist on the southern side where they form the coastal cliffs, and to the west. The caldera margins tend to reflect the regional / local tectonic pattern which has also controlled the distribution of vents within the caldera and areas of thermal springs. Activity at Furnas has been essentially explosive,erupting materials of trachytic composition. Products associated with the volcano include plinian and sub-plinian pumice deposits, ignimbrites and surge deposits, phreatomagmatic ashes, block and ash deposits and dome materials. Most of the activity has occurred from vents within the caldera, or on the caldera margin, although strombolian eruptions with aa flows of ankaramite and hawaiite have occurred outside the caldera. The eruptive history consists of at least two major caldera collapses, followed by caldera infilling. Based on 14C dates, it appears that the youngest major collapse occurred about 12,000–10,000 years BP. New 14C dates for a densely welded ignimbrite suggest that a potential caldera-forming eruption occurred at about 30,000 years BP. Recent eruptions (< 5000 years old) were mainly characterised by alternating episodes of magmatic and phreatomagmatic activity of plinian and sub-plinian magnitude, forming deposits of interbedded ash and lapilli. An historical eruption is documented in 1630 AD; new evidence suggests that another occurred during the early occupation of the area at about 1440 AD.