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Instituto de Investigação
em Vulcanologia e Avaliação de Riscos
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Artigos em revistas ► internacionais com arbitragem


Referência Bibliográfica

ZANON, V., PIMENTEL, A., AUXERRE, M., MARCHINI, G., STUART, F.M. (2020) - Unravelling the magma feeding system of a young basaltic oceanic volcano. Lithos, 352-353, 105325, doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2019.105325.


​A multidisciplinary approach combining petrological, geochemical, and fluid-inclusion studies with seismicmonitoring data was used to build a model of the magma feeding system of Pico volcano (Azores islands, North Atlantic Ocean). We explore how magma has ascended to the surface in the last 10 ka and how this ascent is associated with the selective activation of the three tectonic systems intersecting the volcano. The deepest and most important ponding level for all ascending magmas is located at 17.3-17.7 km and corresponds to the Moho Transition Zone (MTZ), which marks the transition from mantle rocks to ultramafic cumulates. At shallower depth ascending magmas carry >30 vol% of clinopyroxene and olivine. Each magma ascent followed a distinct path and ponded often for a limited period. Ponding levels common to all feeding systems are present at 16.3-16.7 km, 12.1-14.5 km, 9.4-9.8 km, and 7.7-8.1 km. These depths mark important discontinuities where magmas formed stacked sills and evolved through fractional crystallisation. Dense and un-decrepitated fluid inclusions show rapid ascent from the MTZ along the Lomba do Fogo-São João fault (N150° system) and along the N120° regional transtensive system, despite multiple intrusions. Magma ponding at 5.6-6.8 km occurs where the N150° and N60° tectonic systems intersect each other. Here magma evolves towards plagioclase-rich and is only erupted at the summit crater and subterminal vents. This region is the source of the frequent microseismicity recorded at 4 to 7 km beneath the southern flank of Pico volcano, which might be associated with the early stages of formation of a more complex magma reservoir. The local and regional tectonics are of paramount importance in the activation of the different magma feeding systems over time. This new information is fundamental to improve the knowledge on the future eruptive behaviour of Pico volcano and can have significant implications on the mitigation of volcanic risk. This multidisciplinary approach can be applied not only to other volcanoes of the Azores but also to poorly monitored oceanic volcanoes, where magma ascent strongly depends on the activation of tectonic systems.